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高中英语语法:定语从句

来源: 时间:2019/7/24 11:06:00 点击: 今日评论:
 关系代词


Each graduate standing on the playground, who was accompanied by a parent, would be awarded a diploma by the headmaster.

每个毕业生都由父亲或母亲陪伴着站在操场上,等待校长给他们颁发毕业文凭。

My daughter, whose job requires her to do a lot of travelling, is always away from home.

我的女儿总不在家,她的工作需要经常出差。

1关系代词thatwhich的用法

(1)限制性定语从句中只用that不用which的情况:

先行词是不定代词或者先行词被不定代词所修饰时,关系代词通常只用that

Do you have anything that you want to say for yourself?

你有什么要为自己说的吗?

先行词被序数词,形容词最高级,the only, the very, the last等修饰时,关系代词通常只用that,不用which

This is one of the most exciting football games that I have ever seen.这是我见过的最激动人心的足球比赛之一。

This is the only thing that we can do now.

这是我们现在唯一能做的事情。

先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词只用that,不用which

The scientist and his achievements that you told me about are admired by us all.

我们所有人都钦佩你告诉我的那位科学家和他所取得的成就。

定语从句出现在whichwho的特殊疑问句中时用that

Which is the bike that you lost?

哪辆是你丢的自行车?

Who is the boy that won the gold medal?

赢得金牌的那个男孩是谁?

有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词宜用which,另外一个宜用that

They secretly built up a small factory, which produced things that could cause pollution.

他们偷偷地建了一家小工厂,这家工厂生产可能会造成污染的东西。

当先行词在主句中作表语,而关系代词在从句中作表语时。

Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be.

上海不再是过去的那座城市了。

主句是there be句型且关系词在从句中作主语时,用that不用which引导。

There is a seat in the corner that is still available.

在那个角落还有一个座位可用。

(2)只用which不用that的情况:

引导非限制性定语从句。

Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, which, of course, made the others envy him.

海伦对她最小的儿子比对其他的儿子好得多,这当然让其他的儿子很嫉妒她的小儿子。

关系代词充当介词的宾语,且介词位于关系代词之前。

This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived.

这是鲁迅曾住过的房子。

引导的定语从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体或部分概念。

The result was not the same as they had expected, which was rather disappointing.

结果与当初预料的不一样,这让人觉得很失望。

 

2whichas引导非限制性定语从句的区别


She was late for school again, which was unexpected.

她上学又迟到了,这是始料不及的。

She was late for school again, as we expected.

正如我们预料的那样,她上学又迟到了。

[名师指津]as引导限制性定语从句常用于下列句式:such+名词+as (……一样的,像……之类的)such (pron.)as (……一样的,像……之类的)the same+名词+as (……同样的)

We have found such materials as are used in their factory.

我们已经找到了像他们工厂里用的那种材料。

I have the same book as he has.

我和他有同样的书。


 

关系副词


Sing! China has set up a big stage for young people with a talent for music,where some have stood out among them.

《中国新歌声》为有音乐天赋的年轻人建立了一个大舞台,在这个舞台上一些人从中脱颖而出。

The reason why he failed in the exam was that he didn't study hard.

他考试失败的原因是他学习不努力。

I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.

我还记得第一次来北京的那一天。

[名师指津] 当先行词为situation, case, stage, point等表示抽象意义的词,且关系词在定语从句中作状语时,用关系副词where

They have reached the point where they have to separate with each other.他们已经到了必须分手的地步。

 

介词+关系词引导的定语从句

Recently, I bought an ancient vase, the price of which was very reasonable.

最近,我买了一个古代花瓶,它的价格很合理。

He has ten cousins, the youngest of whom is very clever.

他有十个表兄弟,最小的那个很聪明。

Lily might possibly come, in which case I'll ask her.

莉莉可能会来,要是那样的话我就去问她。

There is a big window in my room, from where I can see the railway station.

我的房间有一个大窗户,透过它我可以看到火车站。

 

2介词+关系词引导的定语从句的2个考查点

(1)考查该结构中关系代词的选用

若介词放在关系代词之前,关系代词指人时常用whom,指物时常用which

(2)考查该结构中介词的选用

一般来说,确定关系代词前的介词,可以从以下三方面入手:先行词和介词的搭配习惯;从句中动词或形容词与介词的搭配习惯;句子意思表达的需要。

 

 
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